This book details all of the relevant information on the fragmentation of drugs and pesticides. It extends this information by the interpretation of series of mass spectra in available mass spectral library collections for liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The information provided indicates important fragmentation pathways in the various chemical compound classes. Whenever available or useful, fragmentation in both positive-ion and negative-ion mode is discussed and compared. This is important since no complete databases about the fragmentation of these substances are available, and the information on to interpreting unknown fragments is scattered. Thus, this book will provide important information on how to interpret spectra so that fragments can be correctly identified that are not contained in a database.
Important classes of compounds discussed include pesticides and related compounds as well as drugs for cardiovascular diseases and hypertension, psychotropic or psychoactive drugs, drugs related to digestion and the gastrointestinal tract, antimicrobial compounds, and other classes of drugs, such as steroids, drugs of abuse.
The metabolic N-oxidation ofnitrogenousxenobiotics has been reported tc occur in many biologicalsystems, in addition to mammaliantissues, and the mechanisms appear to differ in many respects from those involved in oxidative attack atcarbon centres. Theextensive useofnitrogen-containing compounds as pharmaceuticals and chemical intermediates can lead to exposure to alarge numberofthese agentsunderwidelyvaryingconditions. Biotransformation of these xenobiotics by N-oxidative pathways can effect detoxication, butequallywellcaninduceformation ofcytotoxicmetabolites or potential promutagens and procarcinogens. The substantial progress, in recent years, in our understanding ofthe biochemistry and toxicology of N- oxidation of nitrogenous structures has created a need for a synthesis of current knowledge. This book provides a wide-ranging review of the state-of-the-art in nitrogen xenobiochemistry divided into four parts. The introductory chapter discusses recent developments in trace analysis of radical intermediates and other N-oxygenated products by physical and immunochemical techniques. Special attention is given in Part Two to the enzymology of N-oxidation. Thus, detailed account is given of the mechanism and substrate specificity of the flavin-containing mono- oxygenase and factors regulating its activity are addressed. A separate chapter outlines the polymorphic expression of flavoprotein-dependent reactions. Similarly, the mechanistic background and inducibility of cytochrome P-450-catalysed turnover of specific types of nitrogenous compounds is highlighted. Data are also compiled describing the role of peroxidative N-oxidation of xenobiotics in extrahepatic tissues lacking significant amounts ofcytochrome P-450.
Finally - a book that covers all aspects of the illicit use of cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy and/or designer drugs such as GHB, written by two experts in their field. The use of these drugs remains a continuous threat in health and medical care delivery, and this book will be an essential asset to the physician who may have to face the evaluation of patients whose use of these drugs compromises an effective treatment plan for other health issues.
The book has been conceived to fill the void in existing physician reference materials, and provides a comprehensive review of the theoretical knowledge and scope of pharmacotherapy in individuals who are hooked on a psychoactive substance.
While detailed scientific information is obtainable in other major articles, the book's straightforward format and style, along with its illustrations, will make for easy reading as emphasis is put on information specifically related to drugs that occur most abused in today s society. The information provided is based on clinical practice rather than pure experimental data, which will give the physician more effective tools useful in their daily practice. Many mechanisms of action of abuse are described in detail and references are provided to direct the reader to further sources for additional information.
As a special feature, the book incorporates uncluttered tables and charts, which result in immediate clarification of the mode of action on the central nervous system and the reason for misuse, thus avoiding usual long and fatiguing text in common reference books. The book aims to give the reader a clear and concise plan on what to do when being faced with an overdose situation.
A well-organized Table of Contents rapidly leads the reader from general pharmacological issues to the specific overdose syndrome and its management. Additionally, significant emphasis is placed on the practical do's and don ts for physicians, with special reference to the predictive signs of aberrant drug-related behavior and the identification of the drug diverter by using urine drug screening."
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