Recent years have seen enormous advances in the field of protein and peptide engineering and a greater understanding in the way in which biological response modifiers function in the body. It is now possible through the use of recombinant DNA techniques, or by solid phase protein synthesis, to produce significant quantities of a wide variety of regulatory agents that are therapeutically applicable. The list of these response modifiers expands almost daily to include interferons, macrophage activation factors, neuropeptides and agents that may have potential in cardiovascular disease, inflammation, contraception etc. Prospects to use some of these materials in medicine have reached the stage where products have either been approved by regulatory authorities or are the subject of applications as investigatory drugs or as new therapeutic agents. In some uses the pertinent agent will be administered on an acute basis in the form of a simple injection, as, for example, the use of a tissue plasminogen activator for the treatment of coronary infarct. In other cases regulatory proteins and peptides are indicated for chronic therapy and here they will need to be administered by an appropriate delivery system. Unfortunately, the research on delivery systems for peptides and proteins has not kept pace with the rapid progress in biotechnology and, consequently, there are presently few systems that are entirely appropriate for the administration of macromolecular drugs according to complex dosage regimens, (eg intermittent and pulsed therapy). Furthermore essential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data may be missing.
This book explores the outcomes of Sweden's aim to create a 'drug-free society' on the lived realities, health, and welfare of people who use drugs, and on the dynamics of Swedish drug use. Drawing on a wealth of empirical data, including extensive interview testimony and participant observation from years of fieldwork conducted in Sweden, the book debunks the widely-believed myth that Sweden is a progressive, liberal, inclusive state. In contrast to its liberal reputation, Sweden has criminalised the use of drugs and allows for compulsory treatment for those with drug dependencies. The work argues that Swedish law and policy cannot be demonstrated to have decreased drug use as intended, with the law used instead as a means with which to displace people who use drugs from public spaces in Sweden's cities. And where the law has failed in its ambition to decrease drug use, Swedish law and policy have increased and exacerbated the problems, dangers, and harms that can be associated with it. People who use drugs in Sweden experience considerable and endemic difficulties with health, violence, abuse, and social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination as a result of Sweden's drug laws, policies, and discourses.
Preventive Chemotherapy In Human Helminthiasis : Coordinated Use Of Anthelminthic Drugs In Control Interventions- A Manual For Health Professionals And Programme Manager
This manual is intended to guide the coordinated implementation of regular, systematic large-scale interventions that provide anthelminthic drug treatment as a core component of the joint and synergic control of helminthic diseases such as lymphatic filariasis onchocerciasis schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. The manual focuses mainly on antihelminthic treatment, but other drugs used to eliminate other agents can be potentially associated to those mentioned in the manual; as a reference trachoma control through the SAFE strategy combining drug treatment with hygiene and environmental management can be associated to helminth control interventions to boost the overall health of affected communities. The greatest challenge is to extend regular anthelminthic drug coverage as a public health intervention to reach all individuals at risk of the morbidity caused by helminthic infections. Preventive chemotherapy should therefore begin early in life and every opportunity should be taken to reach at-risk populations. This manual advocates much greater coordination among disease control interventions. Because such large numbers of people are affected and are often difficult to reach, it also stresses the need to make the best use of all existing drug distribution channels to deliver anthelminthic drugs and aims at encouraging program managers to find other innovative means of reaching those in need in a sustainable manner.
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